Kanker

 

VPRO Thema: Kanker, je lot in eigen hand. Duur: 1 uur 29 min.

De patiŽnt als regisseur van het eigen ziekteproces

Kanker, je lot in eigen hand

 

KankerpatiŽnten lijken steeds meer zelf verantwoordelijk voor hun ziekte, behandeling en genezing. Het begint al als je nog gezond bent. Dagelijks worden we overspoeld met informatie over wat we moeten doen of laten om het risico op de ziekte te verkleinen. Die informatie is tegenstrijdig en buitengewoon versnipperd.
Is de diagnose eenmaal gesteld, dan kun je kiezen uit een groot aanbod reguliere behandelingen of een veelvoud aan alternatieve organisaties die allemaal genezing beloven. Hoe maak je de beste keuze uit de vele mogelijkheden? Rolmodellen als Lance Armstrong zien kanker als iets wat je kunt overwinnen. Je bent dus ook zelf verantwoordelijk voor je genezing. Je hebt de plicht om te knokken, te vechten tot het uiterste. Als patiŽnt word je hoe langer hoe meer regisseur van je eigen ziekteproces.
 
Aan de hand van persoonlijke verhalen van patiŽnten en hun behandelaars worden de voor- en nadelen van deze tendens inzichtelijk gemaakt. Zoals het verhaal van Laetitia (52), die tegen het advies van de oncoloog in zelf bij de chirurg aandrong op een operatie. Aan de vooravond van een nieuwe reeks chemokuren schrijft zij weer een ander ziekenhuis een brief met daarin de vraag of het zin heeft Ďhaar dossier nog ťťn keer door een knappe, vooruitstrevende, optimistische professor te laten bestuderení. Of het verhaal van Leonie (49), die borstkanker heeft en ervan overtuigd is dat ze erbij gebaat is om reguliere en spirituele, oosterse geneeswijzen te combineren (zie ook haar site). Of Anita (47), die elke afspraak met een dikke, samen met haar man gevulde ordner met informatie tegenover de dokter zit. En dan is er de 21-jarige Tim, die is gestopt met de pillen die de nabehandeling vormen van de strijd tegen de leukemie die hem trof. Zijn omgeving verwijt hem egoÔsme. Maar hoewel Tim zelf ook verschrikkelijk bang is de ziekte weer te krijgen, kan hij het niet meer opbrengen om zich zo lang hondsberoerd te voelen als gevolg van medicijnen die hem misschien beter maken.
Behalve de patiŽnten komen ook hun artsen of oncologen aan het woord over wat het toegenomen zelfmanagement voor de uitoefening van hun vak en het ziekteproces van de patiŽnt betekent.

Bron: VPRO november 2011

 

Care Companion

 

Care companion is een digitaal patiŽntensysteem, waarin borstkankerpatiŽnten (en hun naasten) in de thuissituatie alle informatie kunnen inzien die door de hulpverlener wordt gegeven. PatiŽnten hebben inzicht in hun persoonlijke zorgpad.

 

 

Care Companion

 

Vitamine C, nutrition and plants against Cancer

 

 

 
15 september 2005: Bron: Chemisch weekblad en website van de Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

Hoge dosis vitamine C. intraveneus toegediend in de bloedstroom bewijst kankercellen te doden en gezonde cellen ongemoeid te laten in laboratorium proeven. De dosis is hoog maar volgens de onderzoekers gemakkelijk en veilig intraveneus in te brengen in de bloedstroom zodat er geen gevaar lijkt voor de patiŽnt. Vitamine C. doodt door middel van vorming van waterstofperoxide in de cel en leidt tot apoptosis = zelfmoord van de kankercel. Er ontstaat dan wel necrotisch weefsel. Wat, mits dit erg veel is, een gevaar kan betekenen omdat dan teveel kankercellen in een keer worden gedood en het lichaam de opruiming daarvan niet aankan. Het is dus uitermate raadzaam om als u hiermee aan de slag wilt dit te doen onder goede deskundige begeleiding van een arts die ervaring heeft met intraveneus toedienen van hoge dosis vitamine C.. Zie onder adressen van Nederlandse artsen die complementaire geneeskunde toepassen. Overigens wij hebben geen enkele commerciŽle of andere binding met een van de genoemde artsen. Het is puur een extra service.
Wie onderstaande berichtgeving leest ziet dat dit een hele belangrijke studie kan zijn omdat hiermee in feite bewezen wordt wat al jaren wordt beweerd door vele complimentair werkende artsen in binnen- en buitenland en vooral door prof. dr. Linus C. Pauling (
1901-1994), een wereldberoemde biochemicus die 2 Nobelprijzen heeft gekregen en de voorvechter van dŤ complimentaire geneeskunde en zelfs als chemicus anti-chemobehandeling is. Pauling pleitte in zijn boek Cancer and Vitamin C (1979) voor het gebruik van hoge doses vitamine C ter voorkoming van kanker. Linus Pauling nam dagelijks tussen 5 en 10 g vitamine C in, dat is ongeveer 100 tot 200 meer dan de huidige 'normale' gangbare dosering.

Waarom tot nu toe vitamine C niet echt is doorgebroken in een behandeling van kanker is volgens deze onderzoekers omdat in bijna alle studies er te lage concentraties vitamine C zijn gebruikt en ook nog oraal werden toegediend. Zoals we weten is Vitamine C vluchtig en het wordt gemakkelijk afgebroken in onze spijsverteringskanaal voordat door de darmflora kan worden opgenomen. Vandaar dat orale dosering van Vitamine C in de vorm van voedingssupplementen voldoende moeten zijn: minimaal 2-12 g per dag! Hieronder is meer te lezen over intraveneus toedienen van hoge dosis vitamine C. Een samenvatting van een artikel uit het Chemisch Weekblad over deze studie en het originele abstract van de onderzoekers uit het National Institutes of Health in Bethesda en een artikel van BBC News, ook over deze studie.

Vťťl vitamine C helpt tegen kanker

Ascorbaat, het zout van ascorbinezuur oftewel vitamine C, kan selectief kankercellen doden. Mits je er genoeg van toedient, zo stellen onderzoekers van de National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, op de website van de Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
De onderzoekers stelden diverse celculturen in het lab bloot aan ascorbaat. Gezonde cellen bleken van 20 millimolair ascorbaat geen last te hebben. Maar bij vijf van de tien kankercelkweekjes was een concentratie van 4 mM of minder al voldoende om binnen een uur de helft van de cellen te laten afsterven. Volgens de onderzoekers is deze concentratie in bloed gemakkelijk te bereiken wanneer je het ascorbaat via een infuus toedient.
De cellen gingen dood door apoptose of necrose. De onderzoekers schrijven het effect volledig toe aan de vorming van waterstofperoxide, veroorzaakt door het ascorbaat.
Dat vitamine C kankercellen doodt is al eerder beweerd. Alternatieve genezers werken er wel vaker mee. Tot nu toe wees alles er op dat zoín behandeling niet helpt, maar het lijkt er op dat de serieuze wetenschap tot nu toe alleen met veel lagere concentraties heeft geŽxperimenteerd.
bron: BBC News Online, 13 september 2005

Published online before print September 12, 2005
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 10.1073/pnas.0506390102

Pharmacologic ascorbic acid concentrations selectively kill cancer cells: Action as a pro-drug to deliver hydrogen peroxide to tissues

( cell death | ascorbate radical )

Qi Chen *, Michael Graham Espey , Murali C. Krishna , James B. Mitchell , Christopher P. Corpe *, Garry R. Buettner , Emily Shacter , and Mark Levine *∂ *Molecular and Clinical Nutrition Section, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892; Radiation Biology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892; Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1101; and Laboratory of Biochemistry, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892

Communicated by J. E. Rall, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, August 2, 2005 (received for review June 1, 2005)

Human pharmacokinetics data indicate that i.v. ascorbic acid (ascorbate) in pharmacologic concentrations could have an unanticipated role in cancer treatment. Our goals here were to test whether ascorbate killed cancer cells selectively, and if so, to determine mechanisms, using clinically relevant conditions. Cell death in 10 cancer and 4 normal cell types was measured by using 1-h exposures. Normal cells were unaffected by 20 mM ascorbate, whereas 5 cancer lines had EC50 values of <4 mM, a concentration easily achievable i.v. Human lymphoma cells were studied in detail because of their sensitivity to ascorbate (EC50 of 0.5 mM) and suitability for addressing mechanisms. Extracellular but not intracellular ascorbate mediated cell death, which occurred by apoptosis and pyknosis/necrosis. Cell death was independent of metal chelators and absolutely dependent on H2O2 formation. Cell death from H2O2 added to cells was identical to that found when H2O2 was generated by ascorbate treatment. H2O2 generation was dependent on ascorbate concentration, incubation time, and the presence of 0.5-10% serum, and displayed a linear relationship with ascorbate radical formation. Although ascorbate addition to medium generated H2O2, ascorbate addition to blood generated no detectable H2O2 and only trace detectable ascorbate radical. Taken together, these data indicate that ascorbate at concentrations achieved only by i.v. administration may be a pro-drug for formation of H2O2, and that blood can be a delivery system of the pro-drug to tissues. These findings give plausibility to i.v. ascorbic acid in cancer treatment, and have unexpected implications for treatment of infections where H2O2 may be beneficial.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Author contributions: Q.C., M.G.E., M.C.K., J.B.M., C.P.C., G.R.B., E.S., and M.L. designed research; Q.C., M.G.E., J.B.M., C.P.C., E.S., and M.L. performed research; M.G.E., M.C.K., J.B.M., C.P.C., G.R.B., and E.S. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; Q.C., M.G.E., M.C.K., G.R.B., E.S., and M.L. analyzed data; and Q.C. and M.L. wrote the paper.

∂To whom correspondence should be addressed at: Molecular and Clinical Nutrition Section, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 4D52, MSC-1372, Bethesda, MD 20892-1372.

Mark Levine, E-mail: markl@mail.nih.gov
PNAS website

Injected vitamin C. may fight cancer

High doses of vitamin C injected into the bloodstream may be effective at combating cancer, new research suggests. Scientists found that vitamin C in the form of ascorbate killed cancer cells in the laboratory - but the effective dose was so high it could only be delivered to patients by infusion into the bloodstream. The findings appear to contradict earlier studies showing no cancer benefit from vitamin C. However the researchers point out that those trials only investigated orally taken vitamins. Earlier work in the 1970s which used both intravenous and oral ascorbate had hinted at an anti-cancer effect. In the latest study a US team led by Dr Mark Levine, from the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, conducted laboratory experiments which simulated clinical infusions of vitamin C. Cultures of a range of nine cancer and four normal cell types were studied by exposing them to high doses of ascorbate. In five of the cancer lines, there was a 50% decrease in cell survival, while normal cells were unaffected. A more detailed look at lymphoma cells - which were especially sensitive to ascorbate - showed they were either destroyed directly or induced to commit "cell suicide". Further tests revealed that the growth of cells exposed to vitamin C was reduced by at least 99%. The effective dose was less than four millimoles, a concentration much higher than an oral dose but easily achievable by intravenous infusion. Ascorbate treatment led to the formation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a chemical known to be toxic to cells. Why it killed cancer cells but not normal cells was unknown, said the researchers. It was possible the hydrogen peroxide caused damage that was repaired in normal cells but not in sensitive cancer cells.

 

 

 
In onze mailgroep ( wie als OPS-lid gratis lid wilt worden klikt op contact op startpagina) was er een discussie over of morfine nu wel of niet een goed middel was tegen pijn bij kanker. Een van de mailgroepleden stuurde ons toen onderstaande informatie die ik zo interessant vind dat ik die ongewijzigd op de site hier zet. Maar bijzonder is ook dat intraveneus toedienen van vitamine C - ascorbinezuur - als pijnverlichter onverwacht een enorm hoog aantal genezingen bewerkstelligde in een wetenschappelijke studie al uitgevoerd in de jaren 70 in Schotland. 13 van de 100 terminale patiŽnten overleefden vijf jaar en langer hun ongeneeslijke en vergevorderde kanker terwijl alle patiŽnten terminaal waren op moment van starten met de behandeling van intraveneuze toediening van vitamine C - ascorbinezuur. Hieronder het Engelse artikel met verwijzingen naar Engelstalige websites van o.a. Dr. Saul. Zeer de moeite waard dit eens te lezen en/of naar de genoemde websites te gaan. Veel kankerpatiŽnten krijgen in hun laatste fase morfine toegediend , maar intraveneus vitamine C - ascorbinezuur - lijkt dus een zeer goed alternatief met zelfs een kans op verbetering van de lichamelijke conditie. Zie voor genezingskansen ook elders op deze pagina over intraveneus toedienen van vitamine C - ascorbinezuur - bij kankerpatiŽnten.

VITAMIN C (Ascorbic Acid) ANALGESIA

At high intake levels, Vitamin C is known to reduce inflammation and act to as a natural antibiotic and antihistamine. These properties are surprising enough to many, but one of the biggest surprises ever occurred during the 1970's in Scotland at the Vale of Leven Hospital. There, Ewan Cameron, M.D. was giving ten grams (10,000 milligrams) of Vitamin C intravenously each day to terminally ill cancer patients. The study was about Vitamin C and cancer; the unexpected finding was in pain relief.

STRIKINGLY EFFECTIVE
In Great Britain, it was policy to provide terminal patients with any and all pain relief available, including addictive narcotics such as heroin. The argument would be simply that if one were dying anyway, a drug's analgesic value outweighs any drawbacks such as dependency. Dr. Cameron and Dr. Linus Pauling wrote in 'Cancer and Vitamin C' (Warner Books, 1981):

Cameron and Baird reported (in 1973) that the first five ascorbate-treated patients who had been receiving large doses of morphine or heroin to control pain were taken off these drugs a few days after the treatment with vitamin C was begun, because the vitamin C seemed to diminish the pain to such an extent that the drug was not needed. Moreover, none of these patients asked that the morphine or heroin be given to them -- they seemed not to experience any serious withdrawal signs of symptoms.

Any vitamin that approaches the pain relieving power of morphine or heroin must be considered some kind of analgesic indeed. The fact that 13 out of 100 terminally ill cancer patients given vitamin C were still alive and apparently free of cancer after five years is some kind of miracle.

DOSAGE OF "C"

Although quite a lot of vitamin C is needed for results, it is a remarkably safe and rather simple therapy. Details of vitamin C dosage and administration, written by medical doctors, will be found at

 

http://www.doctoryourself.com/titration.html 
http://www.doctoryourself.com/ortho_c.html
http://www.doctoryourself.com/klenner_table.html
http://www.doctoryourself.com/klennerpaper.html

Additional information will be found in Dr. Cameron's "Protocol for the Use of Intravenous Vitamin C in the Treatment of Cancer," which is posted at

http://www.doctoryourself.com/cameron.html

Dr. Cameron's references cited in his article are posted at

http://www.doctoryourself.com/biblio_cameron.html
http://www.doctoryourself.com/pain.html

 

REFERENCES to Dr. Cameron's Protocol for the Use of Intravenous Vitamin C in the Treatment of Cancer, posted in its entirety on this website at

 

1. Cameron, E. and Pauling, L. (1976) Supplemental ascorbate in the supportive treatment of cancer: prolongation of survival times in terminal human cancer. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 73:3685-3689. 

2. Cameron, E. and Pauling, L. (1978) Supplemental ascorbate in the supportive treatment of cancer: Reevaluation of prolongation of survival times in terminal human cancer. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 75:4538-4542 

3. Morishige, F. and Murata, A. (1979) Prolongation of survival times in terminal human cancer by administration of supplemental ascorbate. Journal of the International Academy of Preventive Medicine. 5:47-52 

4.  Murata, A., Morishige, F. and Yamaguchi, H. (1982) Prolongation of survival times of terminal cancer patients by administration of large doses of ascorbate. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research Suppl., 23, 1982, p. 103-113. Also in Hanck, A., ed. (1982) Vitamin C: New Clinical Applications. Bern: Huber, 103-113. 

5.  Rather D.  CBS Network News; January 20, 1985.

6. Cameron, E. and Pauling, L. (1974) The orthomolecular treatment of cancer. 1. The role of ascorbate in host resistance. Chemical-Biological Interactions. 9:273-283. 

7. Cameron E, Pauling L, Leibovitz B.  (1979) Ascorbic acid and cancer: a review. Cancer Research 39, 663-681. 

8. Cameron E, Pauling L. Cancer and Vitamin C.  Linus Pauling Institute of Science and Medicine, Menlo Park, Ca. (1979); (Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London 1980; Kyoritsu Shuppan KK, Tokyo 1981; Warner Books, New York 1981; Services Complet d'Editions, Quebec and Paris 1982).

9. Yonemoto RH, Chretien PB, Fehnoer TF.  Enhanced lymphocyte blastogenesis by oral ascorbic acid.  Proc Am Assn Cancer Res 1976; 17:288.

10. Anderson R.  Ascorbic acid and immune functions: mechanisms of immunostimulation. In, Counsell JN, Hornig DH (eds), Vitamin C.  London, Applied Science Publishers 1981: 249-272.

11. Panush RS, Delafluente JC, Katz P, Johnson J.  Modulation of certain immunologic responses by vitamin C.   Ill. Potentiation of in vitro and in vivo lymphocyte responses.  Int J Vitamin Nutr Res 1982; 23:35-37.

12. Siegel BV, Morton JI.  Vitamin C and the immune response.  Experimentia 1977; 33:393-395.

13. Siegel BV, Leibovitz B.  The multifactorial role of vitamin C in health and disease. Int J Vitamin Nutr Res 1982; 23:9-22.

14. Benade L, Howard T, Burk D.  Synergistic killing of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells by ascorbate and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole.  Oncology  1969; 23:33-43.

15. Yamafuji K, Nakamura Y, Omura H, Soeda T, Gyotoku K.  Anti-tumor potency of ascorbic, dehydroascorbic, or 2,3-diketogulonic acid and their action on deoxyribonucleic acid. Z Krebsforsch  1971; 76:1-7.

16. Yagashita K, Takahashi N, Yamamoto H, Jinnouchi H, Hiyoshi S, Miyakawa T.  Effects of tetraacetyl-bis-dehydroascorbic acid, a derivative of ascorbic acid, on Ehrlich cells and HeLa cells (human carcinoma cells).   J Nut Sci Vitaminol  1976; 22:419-427.

17.  Cameron, E. and Campbell, A. (1974) The orthomolecular treatment of cancer II. Clinical trial of high-dose ascorbic supplements in advanced human cancer. Chemical-Biological Interactions 9:285-315. 

18. Cameron E, Campbell A, Jack T.  The orthomolecular treatment of cancer.  III. Reticulum cell sarcoma: double complete regression induced by high-dose ascorbic acid therapy. Chem Biol Interact  1975; 11:387-393. 

19. Creagan FT, Moertel CG, O'FalIon JR et al.  Failure of high-dose vitamin C (ascorbic acid) to benefit patients with advanced cancer: a controlled trial.  N Eng J Med 1979; 301:687-690.

20. Moertel CG, Fleming TR, Creagan FT et al.  High-dose vitamin C versus placebo in the treatment of patients with advanced cancer who have had no prior chemotherapy. N Eng J Med  1985; 312:137-141.

21. Pauling, L (1980) Vitamin C therapy of advanced cancer (letter). New Eng. J. Med. 302, 694-695 (1980). 

22.  Cameron E.  Vitamin C for cancer (letter). N Eng J Med  1980; 302:299.

23.  Koch CJ, Biaglow JE.  Toxicity, radiation sensitivity modification, and metabolic effects of dehydroascorbate and ascorbate in mammalian cells.  J Cell Physiol 1978; 94:299-306.

24.  Veltri RW, Maxim PE, Baseler MW, Cameransi BG, Kinger MR.   L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) augmentation of anticancer activity of methoxy-substituted benzoquinones, adriamycin and a dihydroxylated amino substituted quinone (DHAQ).   (Submitted 1987 to Cancer Research)

25.  Meredith P.  (Linus Pauling Institute of Science and Medicine) Unpublished observations, 1983.

26.  Cameron E, Moffat L, Campbell A, Marcuson R.  Supplemental ascorbate in incurable cancer: an epidemiological study.   (Submitted 1984 to N Eng J Med)

27.  Campbell A, Jack T.  Acute reactions to mega ascorbic acid therapy in malignant disease.  Scott Med J  1979; 24:151-153.

28.  Burke M.  My successful fight against cancer:  Burke, The Malt House, Warwick, 1982.

29.  Hughes RE.  Recommended daily amounts and biochemical roles - the vitamin C, carnitine, fatigue relationship.  In Counsell JN, Hornig DH (eds),  Vitamin C.  Applied Science publishers, London 1982: 75-86.

30. Cameron E.  Vitamin C and cancer cachexia: the carnitine connection.  In Huemer RP (ed), The Roots of MolecuIar Medicine: A Tribute to Linus Pauling. W.H. Freeman and Co., New York 1986: 133-139.

31.  Cameron E.  Vitamin C, carnitine and cancer, or "My God. I Feel So Much Better, Doctor!"  In Bland JS (ed),  1986: A Year in Nutritional Medicine.  Keats Publishing Inc.) New Canaan) Connecticut 1986: 115-123.

32. Cameron, E. and Baird, G. (1973) Ascorbic acid and dependence on opiates in patients with advanced and disseminated cancer. Journal of International Research Communications. 1:38, August.

33.  Basu TK, Raven RW, Dickerson JWT, Williams DC. Leucocyte ascorbic acid and urinary hydroxyproline levels in patients bearing breast cancer with skeletal metastases.  Eur J Cancer, 1974;  10:507-511. 

34.  Lamden MP, Chrystowski GA.  Urinary oxalate excretion by man following ascorbic acid ingestion.  Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1954; 85:190-198.

35.  Fituri N, Allawi N, Bentley M, Costello J.  Urinary and plasma oxalate during ingestion of pure ascorbic acid: a reevaluation.  Eur UroI  1983; 9:312-315.

36. Tsao CS.  Ascorbic acid and urinary oxalate (letter).  Ann Int Med 1984; 101:405.

37. Tsao CS, Salimi SL.  Effect of large intake of ascorbic acid on urinary and plasma oxalic acid levels. Int J Vitamin Nutr Res  1984; 54:245-249.

38. Hoffer A.  Vitamin C and infertility (letter).  Lancet  1973;  ii:1146.

 

Additional  References (Although listed by Dr. Cameron at the end of his Protocol for the use of Intravenous Vitamin C in the Treatment of Cancer, the following were not cited in the paper itself.)

Cameron E. Hyaluronidase and Cancer. Pergamon Press, Oxford, London and New York.  1966.

Cameron F, Rotman D.  Ascorbic acid, cell proliferation and cancer (letter).  Lancet 1972; i :542.

Cameron, E. and Pauling, L. (1973) Ascorbic acid and the glycosaminoglycans: An orthomolecular approach to cancer and other diseases. Oncology (Basel) 27: 181-192. 

Cameron E.  Vitamin C (letter). Brit J Hosp Med 1975; 13:511.

Cameron E.  Biological function of ascorbic acid and the pathogenesis of scurvy. Medical Hypothesis, 1976; 2:154-163.

Cameron E, Pauling L.  Experimental studies designed to evaluate the management of patients with incurable cancer.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA  1978; 75:6252.

Cameron E, Pauling L. (1979) Ascorbate and cancer. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 123:117-123. 

Cameron E, Pauling L  (1978) Ascorbic acid as a therapeutic agent in cancer. J. Intern. Acad. Prev. Med. 5 (1), 8-29 

Cameron F, Pauling L.  (1981) Survival times of terminal lung cancer patients treated with ascorbate. J. Intern. Acad. Prev. Med. 6: 21-27. 

Cameron, Ewan (1982) Vitamin C and cancer: an overview. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research Suppl. 23.

Cameron F.  Vitamin C and cancer: an overview.  In Hanck A (ed).  Vitamin C. New Clinical Applications.  Huber; Bern, Stuttgart and Vienna 1982, p115-127.

Moffat L, Cameron E, Campbell A.  High dose ascorbate therapy and cancer.  In McBrien DCH, Slater TF (eds), Protective Agents in Cancer.  Academic Press, London and New York 1983:243-256.

 

In addition to Dr. Cameronís selected references listed above, see also:
Cameron E and Pauling L (1978) Ascorbic acid as a therapeutic agent in cancer. J. Intern. Acad. Prev. Med. 5 (1), 8-29. 

Cameron E and Pauling L  (1980) On cancer and vitamin C. Executive Health 16 (4), 1-8. Jan. 

Cameron E and Pauling L (1981) Survival times of terminal lung cancer patients treated with ascorbate. J. Intern. Acad. Prev. Med. 6) 21-27.
Cameron E and Pauling L (1982) Megadoses of vitamin C as an adjunct in the treatment of cancer. Your Patient and Cancer 2, 39-46. May. 

Pauling L and Cameron E (1983) Vitamin C and cancer. Australasian Health & Healing 2 (3), 9-10 (April-June).

Cameron, Ewan (Undated, c.1986-88) Protocol for the use of intravenous vitamin C in the treatment of cancer. Linus Pauling Institute of Science and Medicine, Palo Alto, California. 8 pp.

Cameron E and Pauling L  (1987) Vitamin C and AIDS. Washington Post Health, p. 4. Feb. 3.

Cameron, E. (1991) Protocol for the use of vitamin C in the treatment of cancer. Medical Hypotheses. 36:190-194. 

Cameron, E. and Campbell, A. (1991) Innovation vs. quality control: an "unpublishable" clinical trial of supplemental ascorbate in incurable cancer. Medical Hypotheses, 36(3), p 185-189, November. 

Cameron, E. and Pauling, L. (1993) Cancer and Vitamin C, revised edition. Philadelphia: Camino Books. 

 

Nutrition to Reduce Cancer Risk

The scientific community is continually studying the role of diet in the development of cancer. Many results are preliminary and more is being learned every day. Research is discovering that intake of fruits, vegetables, and cereal grains may interfere with the process of developing cancer of the oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, stomach, colon, lung, prostate, and rectum. In addition to reducing the risk of developing cancer, the risk of developing heart disease, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and other chronic diseases might also be prevented by eating more fruits and vegetables. There is also evidence that total fat intake of greater than 30 percent of total calories can increase the risk of developing some cancers. This is especially true when total fat intake includes saturated fat and possibly polyunsaturated fat. The Food Guide Pyramid, Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and 5 A Day for Better Health Campaign are good sources for nutritional information.

What foods help to prevent cancer?

Although research studies are inconclusive at this time, preliminary evidence suggests that some components of food may play a role in decreasing the risk of developing cancer, including phytochemicals, antioxidants, and omega-3 fatty acids.

What are phytochemicals (or phytonutrients)?

Phytochemicals are chemicals found in plants that protect plants against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Eating large amounts of brightly colored fruits and vegetables (yellow, orange, red, green, white, blue, purple), whole grains/cereals, and beans containing phytochemicals may decrease the risk of developing certain cancers as well as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. The action of phytochemicals varies by color and type of the food. They may act as antioxidants or nutrient protectors, or prevent carcinogens (cancer causing agents) from forming.

What are specific sources of phytochemicals?

The list below is a partial list of phytochemicals found in foods:

  • Allicin is found in onions and garlic. Allicin blocks or eliminates certain toxins from bacteria and viruses.

  • Anthocyanins are found in red and blue fruits (such as raspberries and blueberries) and vegetables. They help to slow the aging process, protect against heart disease and tumors, prevent blood clots, and fight inflammation and allergies.

  • Biflavonoids are found in citrus fruits, vegetables, wine, green tea, onions, apples, kale, beans and especially in herbs and plants (medical and healing plants).

  • Carotenoids are found in dark yellow, orange, and deep green fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, parsley, oranges, pink grapefruit, and spinach.

  • Flavonoids are found in fruits, vegetables, wine, green tea, onions, apples, kale, beans and especially in herbs and plants (medical and healing plants).

  • Indoles are found in broccoli, bok choy, cabbage, kale, Brussel sprouts, and turnips (also known as ďcruciferousĒ vegetables). They contain sulfur and activate agents that destroy cancer-causing chemicals.

  • Isoflavones are found in soybeans and soybean products.

  • Lignins are found in flaxseed and whole grain products.

  • Lutein is found in leafy green vegetables. It may prevent macular degeneration and cataracts as well as reduce the risk of heart disease and breast cancer.

  • Lycopene is found primarily in tomato products. When cooked, it appears to reduce the risk for cancer and heart attacks.

  • Phenolics are found in citrus fruits, fruit juices, cereals, legumes, and oilseeds. It is thought to be extremely powerful, and is studied for a variety of health benefits including slowing the aging process, protecting against heart disease and tumors, and fighting inflammation, allergies, and blood clots.

Phytochemicals cannot be found in supplements and are only present in food. Foods high in phytochemicals include the following:

  • broccoli
  • berries
  • soynuts
  • pears
  • turnips
  • celery
  • carrots
  • spinach
  • olives
  • tomatoes
  • lentils
  • cantaloupe
  • garlic
  • apricots
  • onions
  • seeds
  • soybeans
  • green tea
  • apples
  • cabbage
  • Brussels sprouts
  • bok choy
  • kale
  • red wine

There is no recommended dietary allowance for phytochemicals. Eat a variety of foods, including plenty of fruits and vegetables, to ensure you are getting adequate amounts in your diet.

What are antioxidants?

Antioxidants are substances that inhibit the oxidation process and act as protective agents. They protect the body from the damaging effects of free radicals (by-products of the bodyís normal chemical processes). Free radicals attack healthy cells, which changes their DNA, allowing tumors to grow. Research is underway to investigate the role of antioxidants in decreasing the risk of developing cancer.

Antioxidants

  • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
    According to the National Cancer Institute (NCI), vitamin C may protect against cancer of the oral cavity, stomach, and esophagus and may also reduce the risk of developing cancers of the rectum, pancreas, and cervix. Also known as ascorbic acid, vitamin C may provide protection against breast and lung cancer.

    According to the American Dietetic Association and USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, the following foods are good sources of vitamin C:

    • one medium orange - 69 mg
    • 1 cup orange juice - 124 mg
    • 1 medium raw green pepper - 106 mg
    • 1 cup raw strawberries - 81 mg
    • 1 cup cubed papaya - 86 mg
    • 1 medium raw red pepper - 226 mg
    • 1/2 cup cooked broccoli - 58 mg

The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for vitamin C has recently been increased to 75 milligrams per day for women and 90 milligrams per day for men. Safe upper limit  = 2.000mg.  If on high doses of chemo or nephrotoxins, upper limit  = 500mg.

  • Beta carotene
    Beta carotene, also known as provitamin A, may help decrease the risk of developing cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, this nutrient may prevent certain cancers by enhancing the white blood cells in your immune system. White blood cells work to block cell-damaging free radicals.

    Good sources of beta carotene are dark green leafy and yellow-orange fruits and vegetables. In the body, beta carotene is converted to vitamin A. Eating foods rich in beta carotene is recommended to possibly decrease the risk of developing stomach, lung, prostate, breast, and head and neck cancer. However, more research is needed before a definite recommendation on beta carotene consumption can be made. Overdosing on beta carotene is not recommended. Large doses can cause the skin to turn a yellow-orange color, a condition called carotenosis. High intakes of beta carotene in supplement form may actually cause lung cancer in people at risk, such as smokers, and it is not recommended.

    While there is a recommended dietary allowance for vitamin A (safe upper limit = 25,000IU or 15mg), there is not one for beta carotene. Examples of some foods high in beta carotene include the following:
     
    • carrots

    • squash

    • collards

    • spinach

    • sweet potatoes
       

  • Vitamin E
    Vitamin E is essential for our bodies to work properly. Vitamin E helps to build normal and red blood cells, as well as working as an antioxidant. Research is finding evidence that vitamin E may protect against prostate and colorectal cancer. The recommended dietary allowance for vitamin E is 15 milligrams per day. The adult upper limit for vitamin E is 1,000 milligrams per day. Good sources of vitamin E (and the amount each serving contains) include the following:
     
    • 1 tablespoon sunflower oil - 6.9 mg
    • 1 ounce sunflower seeds - 14 mg
    • 1 ounce almonds - 7.4 mg
    • 1 ounce hazelnuts - 4.3 mg
    • 1 ounce peanuts - 2.1 mg
    • 3/4 cup bran cereal - 5.1 mg
    • 1 slice whole wheat bread - .23 mg
    • 1 ounce wheat germ - 5.1 mg

Since some sources of vitamin E are high in fat. A synthetic form of a vitamin E is available as a supplement. Vitamin E supplementation is probably not needed for most individuals because vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin and is stored in our bodies. Very high doses of vitamin E can also interfere with the way other fat-soluble vitamins work. Also, large doses of vitamin E from supplements are not recommended for people taking blood thinners and some other medications, as the vitamin can interfere with the action of the medication. To make sure you are meeting your needs, eat a varied diet that includes whole-wheat breads and cereals.

There is no recommended dietary allowance for antioxidants. Eat a variety of foods, including plenty of fruits and vegetables, to ensure you are getting adequate amounts in your diet.

What are omega-3 fatty acids?

Researchers are studying the effects omega-3 fatty acids have on delaying or reducing tumor development in breast and prostate cancer. Since our bodies cannot make omega-3 fatty acids, we must get them from food or supplements. The omega-3 fatty acids include:

  • alpha-linolenic acid
  • eicosapentaenoic acid
  • docosahexaenoic acid

Sources and recommended servings of foods high in omega-3 fatty acids include:

  • seafood, especially cold-water fish like salmon, mackerel, sardines, herring, halibut, stripped bass, tuna, and lake trout (aim for three to four servings of these fish every week)
  • flaxseed oil and beans such as kidney, great northern, navy, and soybeans

The American Cancer Society recommends avoiding omega-3 fatty acid supplements in the following situations:

  • if you take anticoagulant medications or aspirin, as omega-3 fatty acid supplements may increase the risk of excessive bleeding
  • if you have elevated cholesterol levels, as omega-3 fatty acid supplements may continue to increase your cholesterol levels
  • if you are pregnant or breastfeeding (Women should talk to their physicians before taking omega-3 supplements or any dietary supplements.)
  • if you are menstruating, as omega-3 fatty acid supplements may increase the tendency of developing anemia

Source: Stanford University

 

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