History Sharkliveroil l What is squalene? l The Role of Squalene in Health  l  Dr. Carl A. Luer

Dr. William Lane interview by dr. Passwater  Dr. William Lane  l  Dr. Bikul Das  l  G.S. Kelly Clinical uses

Dr. Bikul Das

The Science behind Squalene

Dr. Bikul Das is a Research Fellow at the University of Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children, one of the world's most prestigius medical centers.  Dr. Das began his career in molecular biology and cancer research after several years of clinical practice in Bhutan and India.  His studies in oxidative stress and his concern for the impact of pollution on human health led him first to the subject of isopreniod antioxidants and subsequently to the Isopreniod Squalene, with its recently discovered importance in preventive medicine.

Dr. Das is currently working on a cancer research project in the Department of Hematology and Oncology at the same hospital.

This book shows that the subject of Squalene has been highly underestimated, and contains truly innovative thinking about the activity of oxidants and anitoxidants.  Dr. Das hypothesizes that the presence of Squalene in human skin is an evolutionary requirement and raises the question of whether Squalene metabolism is threatened by environrmental pollution.  This clearly presented book methodically describes the dynamic interconnection of oxidant-antioxidant balance, evolution and environmental change. [Dr. George P. Konok, M.D.MSC.FRCSC.FACE. Professor of Surgery. Department of Surgery, Royal University Hospital, Saskatoon. Canada.

Squalene plays a major role in the protection and enhancement of human skin. Dr. Bikul Das has written an authoritive book that brings together the facts about a remarkable substance that has remained unclear to the medical community for far too long.  Dr. Vicki Belo. M.D,Dermatologic Surgeon.
Cosmetic Surgeon, Founder Belo Medical Group. Manila, Philippines. The Medical community today puts great importance on the damgae caused by oxygen radicals and my own research has confirmed the positive effects of Squalene. This book and its presentation of Squalene's biochemical properties are immensely valuable, particularly in the West, where it is
still not fully appreciated. Takashi Yokota. PhD. Yokota Health Institute, Japan.

Methods developed by Dr.F.X.Mayr have shown that antioxidant-based cocktailsaid detoxification and improve tissue regeneration.  Dr. Das's important book has enriched our understanding of cellular regeneratin and shown how Squalene contributes to a balanced response to toxins, oxidants and other threats. Richard Kogenlnig, M.D. Health Centre Lanserhof, Lans, Austria.
Like Glutathione[GSH] Squalene is one of the few antioxidants manufactured within the body, both of which detoxify, help balance our protective metabolisms and protect us from other threats.  In this book, Dr. Bukul Das reveals that medical science has in faxt clarified much more about Squalene than was preivously realized.  By uncovering and combining many research findings into a detailed overview, his book has advanced our understanding by leaps and bounds.  Dr. Jimmy Gutman, M.D.FACEP, Montreal, Canada. Author of Glutathione[GSH-Your Body's Most Powerful Healing Agent.

Despite extensive research, Squalene has remained largely unknown in the West.  In this book, Dr. Bikul Das gathers all known data on the subject and presents them clearly. He provides valuable insight into the crucial subject of oxidant-antioxidant balance and evidence for Squalene's anti-cancer and cholesterol-lowering effects.-Allan Somersall, PhD.M.D., Toronto, Canada. Author of Breakthrough in Cell-Defense and Nature's Goldmine

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Sources and references Squalene and haaienleverolie

1. Berger S.M.: 'Forever Young', 1ste ed., 1989.

2. Tsjujimoto M., Toyam Y., 1992: ' Unsaponifiable Constituents (higher alcohol) of the liver oil of the sharks and rays'. Chem Umschau 29: 27 - 29, 43 - 45

3. Dr. Conrado O. Venzon, 'The Precious Oil of the Deep-Sea Shark', Worldwide Publ.Services Quezon City, Philippines.

4. 'The Healer Shark', Neil Solomons MD.Ph.D. and Richard Passwater, Ph.D. 1998

5. Brohult, Astrid, 1963: 'Alkylglycerols and their use in Radiation Treatment', Acta. Radiol. Suppl. 223: 7 - 99, Stockholm.

6. Dr. William Lane Comac, 'Sharks don't Get Cancer', 1992.

7. ' Fish Oil May Ease Arthritis Pain'. Med. World News July 14, 1986, p. 9.

8 Glausinz: 'The Secret Healing Power of Sharks', The Medicine Discoverer Magazine, January 1994.

9. Prof. dr. J. de Vries, Hart- en vaatziekten vormen samen met kanker de belangrijkste doodsoorzaak in de westerse wereld. Studies wijzen uit dat visolie unieke vetzuren bevat die preventief werken. Waar blijven de aanbevelingen van volksgezondheid? Natuur en techniek 65, 12 1997

10. Kromhout, Daan, Bosschieter, Edward B. and Coulander, Cor de Lezenne, 1985: 'The Inverse relationship Between Fish Oil Consumption and 20-Year old Mortality from Coronary Health Diseases'.

11. Takashi Yokota M.D., 'The Miracle of Squalene (Cures Cancer & Modern Diseases)'

The Medicine Discoverer, January 1994, 'The Secret Healing Power of Sharks'.

13. Martin-Moreno JM, Willett WC, Gorgojo L et al. Dietary fat, olive oil intake and breast cancer risk. Int.J Cancer 1994;58:

14. Trichopoulou A, Katsouyanni K, Stuver S et al. Consumption of olive oil and specific food groups in relation to breast cancer risk in Greece. J Natl.Cancer Inst. 1995;87:110-6.

15. Landa MC, Frago N, Tres A. Diet and the risk of breast cancer in Spain. Eur.J Cancer Prev. 1994;3:313-20.

16. Franceschi S, Favero A, Decarli A et al. Intake of macronutrients and risk of breast cancer. Lancet 1996;347:1351-6.

17. La Vecchia C, Negri E. Fats in seasoning and the relationship to pancreatic cancer. Eur.J Cancer Prev. 1997;6:370-3.

18. Porter, Ph.D. Squalene Monooxygenase, University of Kentucky

19. Newmark HL. Squalene, olive oil, and cancer risk: a review and hypothesis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1997

20. Rao CV, Newmark HL, Reddy BS. Chemopreventive effect of squalene on colon cancer. Carcinogenesis 1998;19:287-290

21. Nakagawa M, Yamaguchi T, Fukawa H, et al. Potentiation by squalene of the cytotoxicity of anticancer agents against culture mammalian cells and murine tumor. Jpn J Cancer Res 1985;76:315-320.

22. Asnis DS, Saltzman HP, Melchert A. Shark oil pneumonia. An overlooked entity. Chest 1993;103:976-977.

23. Yamaguchi T, Nakagawa M, Hidaka K et al. Potentiation by squaleen of antitumor effect of 3-[(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl]-1-(2-chloroethyl)-nitros ourea in a murine tumor system. Jpn.J Cancer Res. 1985;76:1021-6.

24. Smith TJ, Yang GY, Seril DN, Liao J, Kim S. Inhibition of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-induced lung tumorigenesis by dietary olive oil and squaleen. Carcinogenesis 1998;19:703-6.

25. Smith, T. J., Kim, S., Lee, M. J., Yang, G. Y., Newmark, H. L., and Yang, C. S. Inhibition of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NKK)-induced lung tumorigenesis and DNA oxidation by dietary squaleen. Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research 40, 262. 1999. Ref Type: Journal (Full)

26. Dr. Bikul Das. The Science behind Squalene. The Human Antioxidant. 2000. Toronto Canada

27. Kelly GS. Squaleen and its potential clinical uses. Altern.Med Rev. 1999;4:29-36.

28. Fliesler SJ, Keller RK. Isoprenoid metabolism in the vertebrate retina. Int.J Biochem.Cell Biol. 1997;29:877-94.

29. Strandberg TE, Tilvis RS, Miettinen TA. Metabolic variables of cholesterol during squaleen feeding in humans: comparison with cholestyramine treatment. J Lipid Res. 1990;31:1637-43.

30. Kohno Y, Egawa Y, Itoh S, Nagaoka S, Takahashi M, Mukai K. Kinetic study of quenching reaction of singlet oxygen and scavenging reaction of free radical by squaleen in n-butanol. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 1995;1256:52-6.

31. Miettinen TA, Vanhanen H. Serum concentration and metabolism of cholesterol during rapeseed oil and squaleen feeding. Am J Clin.Nutr. 1994;59:356-63.

32. Chan P, Tomlinson B, Lee CB, Lee YS. Effectiveness and safety of low-dose pravastatin and squaleen, alone and in combination, in elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia. J Clin.Pharmacol. 1996;36:422-7.

33. Smith TJ. Squaleen: Potential chemopreventive agent by squalene. Expert.Opin.Investig.Drugs 2000;9:1841-8.

34. Martin-Moreno JM, Willett WC, Gorgojo L et al. Dietary fat, olive oil intake and breast cancer risk. Int.J Cancer 1994;58:

35. Luer, C. A. et al: (In Vitro Metabolism Of The Proximate Carcinogen Aflatoxin-B 1 By Liver Portions Of The Calf, Nurse Shark And Clearnose Skate) Fed. Froc. 46:2 290, 1987
36. Trichopoulou A, Katsouyanni K, Stuver S et al. Consumption of olive oil and specific food groups in relation to breast cancer risk in Greece. J Natl.Cancer Inst. 1995;87:110-6.

37. Paul Terry, Paul Lichtenstein, Maria Feychting, Anders Ahlbom, Alicja Wolk, Vol 357, June 2, 2001 The Lancet

38. Fatty acids and eicosanoids regulate gene expression through direct interactions with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors a and g . Steven A. Kliewer, Scott Sundseth et al. Nat. Academy of Sciences of the USA 1997

39. Joseph Vamecq, Norbert Latruffe, Vol 354, July 10, 1999 The Lancet

40. E. Mueller, P. Sarraf , Bruce M. Spiegelman. Molecular Cell. Vol 1, 465-470, February, 1998

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